Prof. Jak Yakar

ארכיאולוגיה אמריטוס
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Fax: 03-6407237
Office: Gilman-humanities


Professor of Anatolian Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures


1960-1965 B.A. Istanbul University, Turkey
1965-1966 M.A. Brandeis University Mediterranean Studies (Arch. History & Near Eastern Languages)
1966-1968 Ph.D. Brandeis University

Archaeological Field Work

1963Field Assistant, Catal Hoyuk Excavations, Konya-Turkey
1971Assistant Area Supervisor, Beer-Sheba Excavations
1972-73Field survey in northern Turkey, Istanbul University-Samsun Expedition
1974-75Co-Field Director, Ikiztepe Excavations, Istanbul University-Samsun Expedition
1975Co-Field Director, Archaeological survey in the Carsamba Plain, Istanbul University-Samsun Expedition
1976Ethnoarchaeological research in southeastern Turkey
1977Archaeological field survey in eastern Turkey (Sivas-Gemerek-Malatya)
1980Archaeological investigations in the Aegean Basin (Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios, Kos)
1981Ethnoarchaeological research in southeastern Turkey
1982Director, Tel Kinrot Excavations, Tel Aviv University
1983Director, Tel Kinrot Excavations, Tel Aviv University
1985Archaeological research in eastern and southeastern Turkey
1986Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological investigations in northeastern and eastern Turkey
1987Archaeological research in Greek Macedonia and Thrace
1989-90Archaeological research in southwestern Turkey and the Lake District
1993-97Ethnoarchaeological field research in Turkey
1998-2002Field research in archaeology and Hittite political geography
2003-Field research in prehistoric archaeology and ethnography

Current Projects

Ethnoarchaeological Investigations in Turkey



Selected Publications

1985  The Later Prehistory of Anatolia: The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. BAR International Series 268(i-ii). Oxford.

1991  Prehistoric Anatolia: The Neolithic Transformation andֹ the Early Chalcolithic Period.  Tel Aviv University Monograph Series, No. 9. Tel Aviv (Second Printing 1994).

1994  Prehistoric Anatolia: The Neolithic Transformation andֹ the Early Chalcolithic Period. Supplement No.1. Tel Aviv University Monograph Series, No. 9A. Tel Aviv.

2000  Ethnoarchaeology of Anatolia:Rural Socio-Economy in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Tel Aviv University Monograph Series, No. 17. Tel Aviv

2011  Reflections of Ancient Anatolian Society in Archaeology: From Neolithic Village Communities to EBA Towns and Polities. Homer Kitabevi, Istanbul.

Chapters in Books

2011  The Ethnoarchaeology of the Socio-Economic Structure of East Anatolia in the Urartian Period. In K. Köroğlu and E. Konyar, eds., Urartu: Transformation in the East, 126-149.  Istanbul.

2011 Anatolian Chronology and Terminology.  In S R. Steadman and G.McMahon, eds., Ancient Anatolia 10,000–323 BCE, 56-98. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

In Press

Chapter 3. Food Production Modes in Neolithic Anatolia and the Neolithization of the  Balkans.  In L. Nikolova, M. Merlini and A. Comşa, eds., Circumpontica in Prehistory: Western Eurasian Studies, 35-45. In Memory of Eugen Comşa. BAR International Series 10144, Archaeopress, Oxford. See online electronic Pdf version.


1971-1972 Cythera and the Ancient Near East, Anatolica 4:133-137.

1974  The Twin Shrines of Beycesultan, Anatolian Studies 24:151-161.

1974  and A.M. Dinçol. Remarks on the Historical Geography of North-Central Anatolia during the Hittite and Pre-Hittite Periods. Tel Aviv 1: 85-99.

1974  and A.M. Dinçol. Theories on the Localisation of Nerik Reconsidered. Belleten 38: 563-582.

1975  Northern Anatolia in the Bronze Age.  Tel Aviv 2:133-145.

1976  Anatolia and the Great Movement of the Indo-Europeans. Tel Aviv 3:151-160.

1976  Hittite Involvement in Western Anatolia.  Anatolian Studies 26: 117-128.

1977  and  L. Garzon.  The Survival of Ancient Traditions in the Popular Architecture of North-Central Anatolia. Expedition 18: 43-47.

1978  and  A. Gürsan-Salzmann. The Provinces of Malatya and Sivas: an Archaeological Survey of Pre-Classical Sites.  Expedition 30: 59-62.

1979  Troy and the Anatolian Early Bronze Age. Anatolia Studies 29: 51-67, 1979

1979  and A. Gürsan-Salzmann.  Archaeological Survey in the Malatya and Sivas Provinces 1977. Tel Aviv 6: 34-35.

1980  Recent Contributions to the Historical Geography of the Hittite Empire. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft 112: 75-94.

1980 The Indo-Europeans and their Impact on Anatolian Cultural Development, Journal of Indo-European Studies 9: 94-112.

1980  Subterranean Structures in Anatolia: Problems of Interpretation and Chronology. Eretz Israel 15: 17-21.

1981 and A. Gürsan-Salzmann.  Archaeological Investigations in the Triangle of Gemerak-Sıvas-Malatya.  Turkish Review of Archaeology 25:173-179.

1983  Tel Kinrot Excavations. 1982, Israel Exploration Journal 33: 255-256.

1984  Tel Kinrot Excavations. 1983. Israel Exploration Journal 34:190-191.          

1984  and S. Winn. The 1982 Excavations at Tel Kinrot: The Early Bronze Age Settlement. Tel Aviv 11: 20-47.

1984 Regional and Local Schools of Metalwork in Early Bronze Age Anatolia, Part I. Anatolian Studies 34:50-84.

1985 Regional and Local Schools of Metalwork in Early Bronze Age Anatolia, Part II. Anatolian Studies 35:25-38.

1986  A Revised Early Bronze Age Chronology and Terminology for Anatolia. Proceedings of the Turkish Historical Society 9: 97-108.

1987  Chapter on Anatolia.  In R. Merhav, ed., Treasures of the Bible Lands. Tel Aviv.

1989  The So-called Anatolian Elements in the Late Chalcolithic and EBA Cultures of Palestine: A Question of Ethno-cultural Origins,  In P. de Miroschedji, ed., L’urbanisation de la Palestine à l’age du Bronze, 341-354. BAR International Series 527.

1990  The Chronology of the Transcaucasian - East Anatolian Early Bronze Age

Eretz Israel 20: 94-100.

1992  Anatolian Civilization Following the Disintegration of the Hittite Empire.

Tel Aviv 9: 1-20.

1992  The Archaeology Beyond the Eastern Borders of the Hittite Empire. In  H. Otten, E. Akurgal, H. Ertem and A. Süel, A, eds., Hittite and Other Anatolian Studies in Honor of Sedat Alp, 507-520. TTKY, Ankara.         

1993  The Ethnicity of the Halaf  Culture West of the Balikh River. In M. Mellink, T. Özgüç and E. Porada, eds., Anatolia and its Neighbours, Studies in Honor of Nimet Özgüç,  505-517. TTKY, Ankara.

1994  Speculating on the Concepts of the Supernatural in Neolithic Anatolia. Proceeding of the Turkish Historical Society 11: 597-620.

1994  Studies on Eastern Anatolia in the Iron Age-An Introduction.  Tel Aviv 21(1): 3-5.

1996  Hattusha-The City of Silver.In J.G. Westenholtz, ed., Royal Cities of the Biblical World, 53-68.  Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem.

1996 The Neolithic Transformation in the Near East and Anatolia's Role in the Neolithization of Southeastern Europe. Documenta Praehistorica 23: 1-13.

1996/1997  The Early Bronze Age Settlement Pattern in Northwest Anatolia.  In  L. Nikolova, ed.,  Early Bronze Age Settlement Patterns in the Balkans(3500-2000 B.C.), 85-93.Sofia.

1997  Anatolian Trade with Syro-Mesopotamia Prior to the Establishment of Assyrian Merchant Colonies in Anatolia. RAI 39: 365-372.

1997  Did Anatolia Contribute to the Neolithization of Southeast Europe? In  J. Marler, ed., From the Realm of the Ancestors. An Anthology in Honor of Marija Gimbutas, 59-69.  Califronia.

1997  Hacılar. In  E.M. Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East,  Vol.2, 448-449. New York.                                               

1997  Archaeology in the Anatolian Plateau. In E.M. Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Vol.3, 63-67. New York.

1997  Koşay, Hamit Zübeyr (Biography), In  E.M. Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Vol.3, 303-304. New York.

1998  Environmental Factors Affecting Urbanization in Bronze Age Anatolia. In J.G. Westenholz, ed., Capital Cities:Urban Planning and Spiritual Dimensions, 99-110. Bible Lands Museum Publication, Jerusalem.

1998  and  A. Taffet.  Politics and Religion in Urartu.  Bulletin of the Culture Center in Japan 10:133-152.

1998  The Socio-economic Structure of Prehistoric Communities in Southern Levant, ca. 13000-8000 BP.  Documenta Praehistorica 35:53-64.

1998 Were the EBA Inhabitants of Karataş-Semayük Semi-Sedentary?-An Ethnoarchaeological View.  In G. Arsebük, et al., ed., Light on Top of the Black Hill. Studies Presented to Halet Çambel, 811-822.Istanbul.

1998  Cultural Interaction Between Anatolia and Southeast Europe: An Archaeological Appraisal. In M. Stefanovich, et al., ed., In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, Vol.1, James Harvey Gaul in Memoriam, 13-25.  Sofia.

1998 The Question of Social Structure in Neolithic Anatolian Communities.  In M. Otte, Anatolian Prehistory at the Crossroads of two Worlds, 665-672. Liege.

1999  The Socio-economic Significance of Regional Settlement Pattern in Early Bronze Age Anatolia-An Archaeological Assessment,In  Housing and Settlement in Anatolia through the Ages, 505-512.Istanbul.

2000 with A.M. Dinçol,  B.Dinçol, and A. Taffet. The Borders of the Appanage Kingdom of Tarhuntassa-A Geographical and Archaeological Assessment. Anatolica 26: 1-30.

2000 Etnoarkeolojinin Işığında Hatti'de Kırsal Ekonominin Rekonstrüksiyonu. Haberler 10: 1-3. Institute of Ancient Studies, Istanbul University

2001  Meat in the Diet of Early Bronze Age Anatolian Farmers. Festschrift für Harald Hauptmann. In  R.J.Boehmer and J. Maran, eds., Archaologie zwischen Asien und Europa,433-442. Lux Orientis. Westf., Rahden.

2001 The Socio-Economic Organization of the Rural Sector in Kizzuwatna-An Archaeological Assessment. In  E.Jean, A.M. Dinçol and S. Durugönül, eds., La Cilicie:Espaces et Pouvoirs Locaux, 37-46. Varia Anatolica 13. Istanbul.

2001  La Cilicie: Espace et pouvoirs locaux a l’epoque hittite. In E.Jean, A.M. Dinçol and S. Durugönül, eds., La Cilicie:Espaces et Pouvoirs Locaux, 123-125. Varia Anatolica 13. Istanbul.

2001  with A.M. Dinçol,  B. Dincol, and A. Taffet.  Die Grenzen von Tarhuntassa im Lichte geographiscer Beobachtungen. In E. Jean, A.M. Dinçol and S. Durugönül, eds., La Cilicie:Espaces et Pouvoirs Locaux, 79-86. Varia Anatolica 13. Istanbul.

2001 with A. Taffet  Political Considerations in the Foundation of Cities in Urartu. In  P. Azara, et al., eds., Mites de Fundació de Ciutats al Món Antic(Mesopotàmia, Grècia I Roma),101-104. Barcelona.

2001 with  A.M. Dinçol, B. Dinçol, and A. Taffet.  The Territory of the Appanage Kingdom of Tarhuntassa-an Archaeological Appraisal. In G.Wilhelm, ed., Akten des IV. Internationalen Würzburg 4-8 Oktober 1999 Kongresses für Hethitologie,711-720Studien zu den Bogazköy-Texten Band 45. Berlin.

2002 Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology Colloquium Anatolicum 1: 25-52

2002 Revising the Early Bronze Age Chronology of Anatolia. In S. Blum et al., eds., Mauer Schau. Festschrift für  Manfred Korfmann, 445-456. Band 1, Remshalden-Grunbach.

2002  The development of metallurgy in Anatolia during the 4thand 3rd millennia B.C. In U.Yalçın, ed.,Anatolian Metal II, 15-25Der Anschnitt. Zeitschrift für Kunst und Kultur im Bergbau, Beiheft 15. Bochum.

2003  Towards and Absolute Chronology for Middle and Late Bronze Age Anatolia. In A.M. Dinçol & H. Abbasoğlu, eds., Studies Presented to the Memory of A.M. Mansel, 557-570 Istanbul University, Istanbul.

2003  Identifying Migrations in the Archaeological Records of Anatolia. In B.Fischer, H. Genz,  E. Jean, and K. Köroğlu, eds., Identifying Changes:The Transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its Neighbouring Regions, 11-19. Istanbul.

2003  Defining Social Complexity in Anatolian Communities of Hunter-Gatherer Cultivators. In: M. Özdoğan, H. Hauptmann, and N. Başgelen, eds., From Village to Cities. Early Villages in the Near East Studies, 437-446. Istanbul.

2003  O mundo espiritual dos caçadores-colectores sedentarizados na Anatólia. ANOS 90. Revista do Programa De Pos-Graduaçāo em Historia no17: 45-60.

2003  The Spiritual World of Hunter-Gatherers in Anatolia. In M. Özbaşaran, O. Tanındı,  and A. Boratav.   Güven Arsebük’e Armagan Kitabı, 311-319. Istanbul.

2003  Language of Symbols:Communicating with the Supernatural in Prehistoric Anatolia. In:L. Nikolova, ed. Early Symbolic Systems for Communication in Southeast Europe. 25-29BAR International Series 1139. Oxford.

2004  Ethnoarchaeology in Rural Anatolia.  In T. Takaoğlu, ed.,   Ethnoarchaeological Investigations in Rural Anatolia, 9-16. Istanbul.

2004 The Socio-Economic Definition of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods in the Light of New Research in Turkey. In U. Esin  and M. Özdoğan, eds., Studies Dedicated to Prof. Dr. R.J. BraidwoodTUBA-AR 7: 61-66.

2005 The Language of Symbols.  Documenta Praehistorica XXXII: 111-122.

2005 Did Anatolia contribute to the Neolithization of Southeast Europe? Colloquium Anatolicum 4:17-42.

2006  Traits of nomadic people: ethnoarchaeological and archaeological research in Turkey.   In S. R. Hauser, ed., Die Sichtbarkeit von Nomaden und Saisonaler Besiedlung in der Archäologie. Orientwissenschafliche Hefte 21:45-63.

2006  Dating the Sequence of the Final Destruction/Abandonment of LBA Settlements: Towards a Better Understanding of Events that led to the Collapse of the Hittite Kingdom. In D.P. Mielke, U-D. Schoop, J. Seeher, eds., Strukturierung und Datierung in der Hethitischen Archäologie. 33-52.BYZAS 4. Istanbul.

2006  and  A.Taffet. The spiritual connotations of the Spindle and Spinning: Selected Cases from Ancient Anatolia and Neighboring Lands. In M. Alparslan, M. Dogan,  and H. Peker, eds., VITA Festschrift in Honor of Belkis Dinçol and Ali Dinçol. 781-788. Ege Yayınları, Istanbul

2007  The purpose of decorating pottery and artifacts in prehistoric Anatolia: Designs with a hidden meaning.  In  G. Umurtak, S. Dönmez and A. Yurtsever, eds., Studies in Honour of Refik Duru, 59-68. Istanbul.

2007  The ethno-cultural affiliation of the Anatolian Early Bronze Age.  In  H. Todorova, M. Stefanovich and G. Ivanov, eds., The Struma Valley in Prehistory, 339-345. Sofia.

2008  The archaeology of the Kaska. Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici 50:817-827.

2010 The nature of prehistoric Anatolian religions-an ethnoarchaeological perspective, Colloquium Anatolicum 8: 291-310.

2011 Presumed Social Identity of the Occupants of Late Third Millennium BC Alacahöyük and Horoztepe “Royal Tombs” The Journal of Archaeomythology 7:1-8.

2012 The Nature of Symbolism in the Prehistoric Art of Anatolia. In M. Gruber, S. Ahituv, G. Lehmann and Z Talshir,eds., All the Wisdom of the East: Studies in Near Eastern Archaeology and History in Honor of Eliezer D. Oren, 431-451. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 255. Academic Press Fribourg, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Göttingen.

In Press

The archaeology and political geography of the Lower Land in the last century of the Hittite Empire.  In N. Karaaslan and A. Aykurt, eds., Studies in Honour of Prof.Dr. Armağan Erkanal. Hacettepe University, Ankara.

The Organization of Agro-Pastoral Subsistence Mode and the Ethnoarchaeology of  its Socioeconomic Dimensions in Neolithic Anatolia. In A. Öztan, ed., Uğur Silistreli Armağan Kitabı(Memorial Book), Ankara University, Ankara.

The Origins of the West Anatolian Early Bronze Age. In  R. Koehl, ed., AMILLA: The Quest for Excellence. Studies in honor of Guenter Kopcke. INSTAP Academic Press, Philadelphia

Review Articles

1980  T.Özgüç.  Excavations at Maşat Höyük and Investigations in its Vicinity. TTKY, Ankara 1978.  JAOS 100:175-177. 

1982  I. Todd. The Prehistory of Central Anatolia I: The Neolithic Period. SIMA. Göteborg 1980.  JAOS 102: 540-542.

1983  A. G. Mebus. Einführung in die Methoden der physikalischen und chemischen Alterbestimming. Darmstadt 1980.  Bibliotheca Orientalis 40: 454-458.

1983  R.M. Boehmer. Die Kleinfunde aus der Unterstadt von Boğazköy. Grabungskampagnen 1977-1978. Berlin 1979.  Bibliotheca Orientalis  40: 467-471.

1983  M. van Loon.  Korucutepe 3. Final Report on the Excavations of the Universities of Chicago California (Los Angeles) and Amsterdam in the Keban Reservoir, Eastern Anatolia 1968-1970. Amsterdam/New York 1980.  Bibliotheca Orientalis 40: 471-476.

1987  J. Cauvin and  O. Aurenche.  Cahiers de l'Euphrate  4, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris: 1985.  JAOS 107:

1990  J.V. Canby, E. Porada, B.S. Ridgeway, and T. Stech.   Ancient Anatolia. Essays in Honor of M. Mellink. Madison 1986.  Bibliotheca Orientalis 47: 15-21.

1990  M. Korfmann.  Demircihoyuk. Band II. Mainz-am-Rhein 1987, BO 47: 148-150.

1990  J. Seeher,  Demircihöyük. Band III, 1.  Mainz-am-Rhein 1987; T. Efe, Demircihöyük. Band III, 2.  Mainz-am-Rhein 1988, Bibliotheca Orientalis  47: 203-209.

1990  Transhumance and the Question of Nomadism in Early Anatolia.  Proceedings of the Turkish Historical Society 10: 597-606.

1993  M. Gimbutas.  The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Old Europe. San Francisco 1991. BASOR  292:122-124.

1994   T.J. Wilkinson Town and Country in Southeastern Anatolia. Vol. 1: Settlement and Land Use at Kurban Hoyuk and Other Sites inÛthe Lower Karababa Basin; Vol. II: The Stratigraphic Sequence at Kurban Höyük. Oriental Institute Publications No. 109, 1990. Chicago. Bibliotheca Orientalis 51: 165-169.

1995  M.R. Behm-Blancke.  Hassek Höyük. Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen und Lithische Industrie. Tübingen:Wasmuth 1992. Bibliotheca Orientalis  52: 467-470.

1997  J. Roodenberg,  The Ilıpınar Excavations, Istanbul 1995. Bibliotheca Orientalis 54: 214-218.

1999 H.I.H.Prince Tahakito Mikasa. Essays on Ancient Anatolia and Surrounding Civilizations.  Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan, Vol.8. Wiesbaden 1995. JAOS 119.1:188-190.

2001 Aslıhan Yener. The Domestication of Metals: The Rise of Complex Metal Industries in Anatoliay. Boston 2000. BASOR 324:114-116.

2003 H. Todorova and I. Vajsov. Der Kupferzeitliche Schmuck Bulgariens. Sttutgart 2001.  Archaeologia Bulgarica 7(1):97-98.

2003  F. Gerard and  L. Thissen. The Neolithic of Central Anatolia:Internal developments and External relations during the 9th-6th Millennia CAL BC: Proceedings of the International CANeW Table Round, Istanbul 23-24 November 2001. BASOR 331:67-69.

2004  Henrieta Todorova. Durankulak.  Band II, Prähistorischen Gräberfeld von Durankulak. Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut. Berlin 2002. Archaeologia Bulgarica 8:101-103.

2004  K. Schmidt.  Norşuntepe, Kleinefunde II:Artefakte aus Felsgestein, Knochen und Geweih, Ton, Metall und Glas.  Archaeologica Euphratica, Band 2. Mainz 2002.  BASOR 334:78-81.

2009 PRAE  In Honorem Henrieta Todorova.  National Archaeological Institute with Museum Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Sofia 2007. Archaeologia Bulgarica 13(1): 107-110.

2009  J. Becker.   Nevali Çori  Keramik und Kleinfunde der Halaf- und Frühbronzezeit, Archaeologica Euphratica Band 4. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein 2007. BASOR 355:101-14.

2011  C. Roosevelt. The archaeology of Lydia, from Gyges to Alexander. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009.  Ancient History Bulletin 23(2009):93-98.

In Press

Brian C. Rose and Gareth Darbyshire, eds. The New Chronology of Iron Age Gordion. Gordion Special Studies VI, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Museum Monographs. 2011. Pp. xiii + 181, 118 figures, 10 tables. Ancient Near Eastern Studies


Dariusz Maliszewski. New Light on the Bronze Age Ceramics from H. Schliemann’s Excavations at Troy. Studies on the Munich and Poznań Collections within the Anatolian-Aegean Cultural Context. British Archaeological Reports International Series 2119, Oxford 2010, pp. I-IV, 1-402, 15 tables, 1 map, 117 black and white drawings, 181 black & white photographs, 63 color photographs. Colloquium Anatolicum

Düring, B.S.  The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010. Pp. xiv + 360, 61 figures, 7 tables.  Bibliotheca Orientalis



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