Prof. Ronit Kramarski

Department of Neurobiology
מחלקה לנוירוביולוגיה סגל אקדמי בכיר
Prof. Ronit Kramarski
Phone: 03-6406801
Fax: 03-6407643
Office: Sherman - Life Sciences, 723

Research Interests



A.  ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases.

1. One goal of our studies is to understand the role of growth factors and their receptors in neurodegenerative diseases.

2. Recently we have found that ErbB receptors interact with nucleolin via their cytoplasmic tail. Since ErbBs, Ras and nucleolin were implicated in cancer formation, our hypothesis is that the interaction between these proteins enhances cell transformation. Thus our goal is to study the crosstalk between ErbB receptors, nucleolin and Ras and the involvement of this interaction in malignant transformation.

B. Autophagy and Beclin 1 and neurodegeneration

1. Autophagy in neurodegeneration. Autophagy is a process of regulated turnover of cellular constituents that in some cases may lead to Type II cell death. Defects in autophagy are linked to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We propose to further study the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases and to substantiate our findings of rapamycin treatment as a valuable neuroprotective drug.

2.  Beclin 1 interacting proteins and autophagy.  Beclin 1, a Bcl-2-interacting protein, represents a potentially important junction of the apoptotic and autophagic machinery, and as such it interacts with proteins important for autophagy, such as Vps34, UVRAG, Ambra1, as well as with anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2. Recently, using GST pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy analysis we identified new Beclin1 interactions. Our results indicate that Beclin 1 may also interact with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB (NMHC-IIB) and it also self interacts. We therefore propose to further study the involvement of Beclin 1, via its interactions with other proteins, to regulate autophagy/apoptosis in various cell types.

3.  Autophagy as pro-oncogenic process.  Recently we have found that found that Ras inhibition by Salirasib (FTS) induces autophagy in several cancer cell lines. The autophagy induced by FTS seems to protect cells from FTS induced cell death since in the absence of autophagy cell death is enhanced by FTS treatment.  Thus we suggest that autophagy inhibition may promote FTS-mediated tumor cell growth inhibition.  We will further study the protective effect of autophagy following treatments with anti cancer drugs. We expect that the combined treatment (with autophagy inhibitor and anti cancer drugs) may lead to enhanced cell growth inhibition and cell death and may lead to development of better future treatment. 

Recent Publications


  1. Eran Schmukler, Eya Wolfson, Zvulun Elazar, Yoel Kloog, and Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski. Continuous treatment with FTS confers resistance to apoptosis and affects autophagy.  PLoS One.  2017.  In Press.
  2. Wolfson E, Goldenberg M, Solomon S, Frishberg A, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Nucleolin-binding by ErbB2 enhances tumorigenicity of ErbB2-positive breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 4;7(40):65320-65334. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.11323. PubMed PMID: 27542246.
  3. Goldshmit Y, Schokoroy Trangle S, Afergan F, Iram T, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Nucleolin inhibitor GroA triggers reduction in epidermal growth factor receptor activation: Pharmacological implication for glial scarring after spinal cord injury. J Neurochem. 2016 Sep;138(6):845-58. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13730. PubMed PMID: 27399849.  
  4.  Simonovitch S, Schmukler E, Bespalko A, Iram T, Frenkel D, Holtzman DM, Masliah E, Michaelson DM, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Impaired Autophagy in APOE4 Astrocytes. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51(3):915-27. doi: 10.3233/JAD-151101. PubMed PMID: 26923027.
  5.  Klionsky DJ, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016;12(1):1-222. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356. Erratum in: Autophagy. 2016;12(2):443. Selliez, Iban [corrected to Seiliez, Iban]. PubMed PMID: 26799652; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4835977.  
  6.   Goldshmit Y, Kanner S, Zacs M, Frisca F, Pinto AR, Currie PD, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Rapamycin increases neuronal survival, reduces inflammation and astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep;68:82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.04.006. PubMed PMID: 25936601.
  7. Wolfson E, Schmukler E, Schokoroy ST, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Enhancing FTS (Salirasib) efficiency via combinatorial treatment. Biol Cell. 2015 May;107(5):130-43. doi: 10.1111/boc.201400087. Review. PubMed PMID: 25735913.
  8. Goldshmit Y, Frisca F, Kaslin J, Pinto AR, Tang JK, Pébay A, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Currie PD. Decreased anti-regenerative effects after spinal cord injury in spry4-/- mice. Neuroscience. 2015 Feb 26;287:104-12. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.12.020. PubMed PMID: 25541251.
  9.  Goldshmit Y, Trangle SS, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Interfering with the interaction between ErbB1, nucleolin and Ras as a potential treatment for glioblastoma. Oncotarget. 2014 Sep 30;5(18):8602-13. PubMed PMID: 25261371; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4226707.
  10. Burgess AW, Henis YI, Hynes NE, Jovin T, Levitzki A, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Yarden Y. EGF receptor family: twisting targets for improved cancer therapies. Growth Factors. 2014 Apr;32(2):74-81. doi: 10.3109/08977194.2014.896355. PubMed PMID: 24641597.
  11. Schmukler E, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Ras and autophagy in cancer development and therapy. Oncotarget. 2014 Feb 15;5(3):577-86. Review. PubMed PMID: 24583697; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3996671.
  12.  Schmukler E, Wolfson E, Haklai R, Elad-Sfadia G, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Chloroquine synergizes with FTS to enhance cell growth inhibition and cell death. Oncotarget. 2014 Jan 15;5(1):173-84. PubMed PMID: 24368422; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3960199.  
  13. Trangle S, Goldshmit Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Breaking the malignant triangle in glioblastoma - ErbB1/nucleoin/Ras. Can Cell Microenviron . 2014; 1:e42.
  14. Shai B, Schmukler E, Yaniv R, Ziv N, Horn G, Bumbarov V, Yadin H, Smorodinsky NI, Bacharach E, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Ehrlich M. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus induces and benefits from cell stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. J Virol. 2013 Dec;87(24):13397-408. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02116-13. PubMed PMID: 24089565; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3838270.  
  15. Schokoroy S, Juster D, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Disrupting the oncogenic synergism between nucleolin and Ras results in cell growth inhibition and cell death. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 24;8(9):e75269. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075269. PubMed PMID: 24086490; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3782480.
  16.  Schmukler E, Grinboim E, Schokoroy S, Amir A, Wolfson E, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Ras inhibition enhances autophagy, which partially protects cells from death. Oncotarget. 2013 Jan;4(1):145-55. PubMed PMID: 23370967; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3702214.  
  17. Klionsky DJ, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr;8(4):445-544. PubMed PMID: 22966490; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3404883.  
  18.  Schmukler E, Shai B, Ehrlich M, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neuregulin promotes incomplete autophagy of prostate cancer cells that is independent of mTOR pathway inhibition. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036828. PubMed PMID: 22606295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3351469.
  19.  Farin K, Schokoroy S, Haklai R, Cohen-Or I, Elad-Sfadia G, Reyes-Reyes ME, Bates PJ, Cox AD, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Oncogenic synergism between ErbB1, nucleolin, and mutant Ras. Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 15;71(6):2140-51. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2887. Erratum in: Cancer Res. 2011 May 15;71(10):3732. PubMed PMID: 21257709.  
  20.  Adi-Harel S, Erlich S, Schmukler E, Cohen-Kedar S, Segev O, Mizrachy L, Hirsch JA, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Beclin 1 self-association is independent of autophagy induction by amino acid deprivation and rapamycin treatment. J Cell Biochem. 2010 Aug 1;110(5):1262-71. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22642. PubMed PMID: 20564222.
  21.  Farin K, Di Segni A, Mor A, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Structure-function analysis of nucleolin and ErbB receptors interactions. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 3;4(7):e6128. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006128. PubMed PMID: 19578540; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2700965.  
  22.  Zalckvar E, Berissi H, Mizrachy L, Idelchuk Y, Koren I, Eisenstein M, Sabanay H, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Kimchi A. DAP-kinase-mediated phosphorylation on the BH3 domain of beclin 1 promotes dissociation of beclin 1 from Bcl-XL and induction of autophagy. EMBO Rep. 2009 Mar;10(3):285-92. doi: 10.1038/embor.2008.246. PubMed PMID: 19180116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2658558.
  23. Farin K. The crosstalk between ErbB1 and nucleolin. Communicative & Integrative Biology. 2009; 2(6):523-525.
  24. Di Segni A, Farin K, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Identification of nucleolin as new ErbB receptors- interacting protein. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 4;3(6):e2310. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002310. PubMed PMID: 18523588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2390759.  
  25. Klionsky DJ, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes. Autophagy. 2008 Feb;4(2):151-75. Review. PubMed PMID: 18188003; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2654259.  
  26. Erlich S, Mizrachy L, Segev O, Lindenboim L, Zmira O, Adi-Harel S, Hirsch JA, Stein R, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Differential interactions between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2 family members. Autophagy. 2007 Nov-Dec;3(6):561-8. PubMed PMID: 17643073.
  27. Erlich S, Alexandrovich A, Shohami E, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Rapamycin is a neuroprotective treatment for traumatic brain injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Apr;26(1):86-93. PubMed PMID: 17270455. 
  28. Tal-Or P, Erlich S, Porat-Shliom N, Goldshmit Y, Ben-Baruch G, Shaharabani E, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Ligand-independent regulation of ErbB4 receptor phosphorylation by activated Ras. J Cell Biochem. 2006 Aug 15;98(6):1482-94. PubMed
    PMID: 16518842.
  29. Erlich S, Tal-Or P, Liebling R, Blum R, Karunagaran D, Kloog Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Ras inhibition results in growth arrest and death of androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;72(4):427-36. PubMed PMID: 16780807. 
  30. Silberberg G, Darvasi A, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Navon R. The involvement of ErbB4 with schizophrenia: association and expression studies. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006 Mar 5;141B(2):142-8. PubMed PMID: 16402353. 
  31. Erlich S, Shohami E, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neurodegeneration induces upregulation of Beclin 1. Autophagy. 2006 Jan-Mar;2(1):49-51. PubMed PMID: 16874043. 
  32. Di Segni A, Farin K, Pinkas-Kramarski R. ErbB4 activation inhibits MPP+-induced cell death in PC12-ErbB4 cells: involvement of PI3K and Erk signaling. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29(3):257-67. PubMed PMID: 17085783. 
  33. Diskin T, Tal-Or P, Erlich S, Mizrachy L, Alexandrovich A, Shohami E, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Closed head injury induces upregulation of Beclin 1 at the cortical site of injury. J Neurotrauma. 2005 Jul;22(7):750-62. PubMed PMID: 16004578. 
  34. Kochupurakkal BS, Harari D, Di-Segni A, Maik-Rachline G, Lyass L, Gur G, Kerber G, Citri A, Lavi S, Eilam R, Chalifa-Caspi V, Eshhar Z, Pikarsky E, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Bacus SS, Yarden Y. Epigen, the last ligand of ErbB receptors, reveals intricate relationships between affinity and mitogenicity. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 4;280(9):8503-12. PubMed PMID: 15611079. 
  35. Di Segni A, Shaharabani E, Stein R, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neuregulins rescue PC12-ErbB-4 cells from cell death induced by beta-amyloid peptide: involvement of PI3K and PKC. J Mol Neurosci. 2005;26(1):57-69. PubMed PMID: 15968086.
  36. Tal-Or P, Di-Segni A, Lupowitz Z, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neuregulin promotes autophagic cell death of prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2003 May 1;55(2):147-57. PubMed PMID: 12661040. 
  37. Goldshmit Y, Erlich S, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neuregulin rescues PC12-ErbB4 cells from cell death induced by H(2)O(2). Regulation of reactive oxygen species levels by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46379-85. PubMed PMID: 11590144. 
  38. Goldsmit Y, Erlich S, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Neuregulin induces sustained reactive oxygen species generation to mediate neuronal differentiation. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2001 Dec;21(6):753-69. PubMed PMID: 12043846. 
  39. Erlich S, Goldshmit Y, Lupowitz Z, Pinkas-Kramarski R. ErbB-4 activation inhibits apoptosis in PC12 cells. Neuroscience. 2001;107(2):353-62. PubMed PMID: 11731109. 
  40. Erlich S, Shohami E, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Closed head injury induces up-regulation of ErbB-4 receptor at the site of injury. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000 Nov;16(5):597-608. PubMed PMID: 11083921. 
  41. Vaskovsky A, Lupowitz Z, Erlich S, Pinkas-Kramarski R. ErbB-4 activation promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2000 Mar;74(3):979-87. PubMed PMID: 10693928.
  42. Tzahar E, Moyer JD, Waterman H, Barbacci EG, Bao J, Levkowitz G, Shelly M, Strano S, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Pierce JH, Andrews GC, Yarden Y. Pathogenic poxviruses reveal viral strategies to exploit the ErbB signaling network. EMBO J. 1998 Oct 15;17(20):5948-63. PubMed PMID: 9774339; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1170922. 
  43. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Shelly M, Guarino BC, Wang LM, Lyass L, Alroy I, Alimandi M, Kuo A, Moyer JD, Lavi S, Eisenstein M, Ratzkin BJ, Seger R, Bacus SS, Pierce JH, Andrews GC, Yarden Y. ErbB tyrosine kinases and the two neuregulin families constitute a ligand-receptor network. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):6090-101. Erratum in: Mol Cell Biol 1998 Dec;18(12):7602. Alamandi M [corrected to Alimandi M]. PubMed PMID: 9742126; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC109195. 
  44. Lenferink AE, Pinkas-Kramarski R, van de Poll ML, van Vugt MJ, Klapper LN, Tzahar E, Waterman H, Sela M, van Zoelen EJ, Yarden Y. Differential endocytic routing of homo- and hetero-dimeric ErbB tyrosine kinases confers signaling superiority to receptor heterodimers. EMBO J. 1998 Jun 15;17(12):3385-97. PubMed PMID: 9628875; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1170676.
  45. Shelly M, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Guarino BC, Waterman H, Wang LM, Lyass L, Alimandi M, Kuo A, Bacus SS, Pierce JH, Andrews GC, Yarden Y. Epiregulin is a potent pan-ErbB ligand that preferentially activates heterodimeric receptor complexes. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 24;273(17):10496-505. PubMed PMID: 9553109.
  46. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Lenferink AE, Bacus SS, Lyass L, van de Poll ML, Klapper LN, Tzahar E, Sela M, van Zoelen EJ, Yarden Y. The oncogenic ErbB-2/ErbB-3 heterodimer is a surrogate receptor of the epidermal growth factor and betacellulin. Oncogene. 1998 Mar 12;16(10):1249-58. PubMed PMID: 9546426.
  47. Eilam R, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Ratzkin BJ, Segal M, Yarden Y. Activity-dependent regulation of Neu differentiation factor/neuregulin expression in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Feb 17;95(4):1888-93. PubMed PMID: 9465112; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC19208.
  48. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Eilam R, Alroy I, Levkowitz G, Lonai P, Yarden Y. Differential expression of NDF/neuregulin receptors ErbB-3 and ErbB-4 and involvement in inhibition of neuronal differentiation. Oncogene. 1997 Dec 4;15(23):2803-15. PubMed PMID: 9419971.
  49. Tzahar E, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Moyer JD, Klapper LN, Alroy I, Levkowitz G, Shelly M, Henis S, Eisenstein M, Ratzkin BJ, Sela M, Andrews GC, Yarden Y. Bivalence of EGF-like ligands drives the ErbB signaling network. EMBO J. 1997 Aug 15;16(16):4938-50. PubMed PMID: 9305636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1170129.
  50. Klapper LN, Vaisman N, Hurwitz E, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Yarden Y, Sela M. A subclass of tumor-inhibitory monoclonal antibodies to ErbB-2/HER2 blocks crosstalk with growth factor receptors. Oncogene. 1997 May 1;14(17):2099-109. PubMed PMID: 9160890.
  51. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Alroy I, Yarden Y. ErbB receptors and EGF-like ligands: cell lineage determination and oncogenesis through combinatorial signaling. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1997 Apr;2(2):97-107. Review. PubMed PMID: 10882296.
  52. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Shelly M, Glathe S, Ratzkin BJ, Yarden Y. Neu differentiation factor/neuregulin isoforms activate distinct receptor combinations. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9;271(32):19029-32. PubMed PMID: 8702572.
  53.  Pinkas-Kramarski R, Soussan L, Waterman H, Levkowitz G, Alroy I, Klapper L, Lavi S, Seger R, Ratzkin BJ, Sela M, Yarden Y. Diversification of Neu differentiation factor and epidermal growth factor signaling by combinatorial receptor interactions. EMBO J. 1996 May 15;15(10):2452-67. PubMed PMID: 8665853; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC450177.
  54. Fisher A, Heldman E, Gurwitz D, Haring R, Karton Y, Meshulam H, Pittel Z, Marciano D, Brandeis R, Sadot E, Barg Y, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Vogel Z, Ginzburg I, Treves TA, Verchovsky R, Klimowsky S, Korczyn AD. M1 agonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Novel properties and clinical update. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Jan 17;777:189-96. Review. PubMed PMID: 8624083.
  55. Haring R, Gurwitz D, Barg J, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Heldman E, Pittel Z, Danenberg HD, Wengier A, Meshulam H, Marciano D, et al. NGF promotes amyloid precursor protein secretion via muscarinic receptor activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Aug 4;213(1):15-23. PubMed PMID: 7639729.
  56. Lindenboim L, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Sokolovsky M, Stein R. Activation of muscarinic receptors inhibits apoptosis in PC12M1 cells. J Neurochem. 1995 Jun;64(6):2491-9. PubMed PMID: 7760028. 
  57. Marikovsky M, Lavi S, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Karunagaran D, Liu N, Wen D, Yarden Y. ErbB-3 mediates differential mitogenic effects of NDF/heregulin isoforms on mouse keratinocytes. Oncogene. 1995 Apr 6;10(7):1403-11. PubMed PMID: 7731691.
  58. Gurwitz D, Haring R, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Stein R, Heldman E, Karton Y, Fisher A. NGF-dependent neurotrophic-like effects of AF102B, an M1 muscarinic agonist, in PC12M1 cells. Neuroreport. 1995 Feb 15;6(3):485-8. PubMed PMID: 7766849.
  59. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Eilam R, Spiegler O, Lavi S, Liu N, Chang D, Wen D, Schwartz M, Yarden Y. Brain neurons and glial cells express Neu differentiation factor/heregulin: a survival factor for astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27;91(20):9387-91. PubMed PMID: 7937775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC44817.
  60. Haring R, Gurwitz D, Barg J, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Heldman E, Pittel Z, Wengier A, Meshulam H, Marciano D, Karton Y, et al. Amyloid precursor protein secretion via muscarinic receptors: reduced desensitization using the M1-selective agonist AF102B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Aug 30;203(1):652-8. PubMed PMID: 8074717.
  61. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Stein R, Lindenboim L, Sokolovsky M. Growth factor-like effects mediated by muscarinic receptors in PC12M1 cells. J Neurochem. 1992 Dec;59(6):2158-66. PubMed PMID: 1331326.
  62. Buxbaum JD, Oishi M, Chen HI, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Jaffe EA, Gandy SE, Greengard P. Cholinergic agonists and interleukin 1 regulate processing and secretion of the Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 1;89(21):10075-8. PubMed PMID: 1359534; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC50280.
  63. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Edelman R, Stein R. Indications for selective coupling to phosphoinositide hydrolysis or to adenylate cyclase inhibition by endogenous muscarinic receptor subtypes M3 and M4 but not by M2 in tumor cell lines. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Jan 22;108(3):335-40. PubMed PMID: 2154728.
  64. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Stein R, Sokolovsky M. Postnatal changes in muscarinic receptor subtype mRNAs in rat brain and heart. J Mol Neurosci. 1989;1(4):209-13. PubMed PMID: 2484332.
  65. Pinkas-Kramarski R, Stein R, Zimmer Y, Sokolovsky M. Cloned rat M3 muscarinic receptors mediate phosphoinositide hydrolysis but not adenylate cyclase inhibition. FEBS Lett. 1988 Nov 7;239(2):174-8. PubMed PMID: 2846354.
  66. Stein R, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Sokolovsky M. Cloned M1 muscarinic receptors mediate both adenylate cyclase inhibition and phosphoinositide turnover. EMBO J. 1988 Oct;7(10):3031-5. PubMed PMID: 2846274; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC454689.

Books and Chapters 

67.  Schmukler E, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging. Hayat E, editor. USA: Elsevier ; 2014. Inhibition of ErbB receptors and autophagy in cancer therapy.

68.  Di-Segni A, Pinkas-Kramarski R. Breast cancer: From pathogenesis to potential therapeutic modalities. Ben Baruch A, editor. India: Research Signpost; 2009. Chapter 4, The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. ; p.77-105. 77p.

69.  Pinkas-Kramarski R, Yarden Y. Human Cytokines: Handbook for basic and Clinical Research. Aggarwal B, Gutterman J, editors. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1996. Structure and function of Neu Differentiation Factors.; p.340-360 .


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