Prof. Joseph Appelbaum

מנהלת הפקולטה להנדסה אמריטוס
Prof. Joseph Appelbaum
Phone: 03-6409014
Another phone: 03-6407052
Fax: 03-6407052
Office: Electrical Engineering, 1



Technion, I.I.T. (Israel Inst. of Technology), Haifa, Israel;

B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering (Cum Laude).


Technion, I.I.T.,  Haifa, Israel,

M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering,

Thesis: “Dimensional Analysis of an Induction Machine from the Economical Viewpoint”.


Technion, I.I.T., Haifa, Israel, 

D.Sc. in Electrical Engineering,

Dissertation: “Design of Electrical Machines by Means of Digital Computers”.



Optimization methods for electromagnetic devices; Electrical machines and drives; Solar radiation,Solar energy systems;Solar cells parameters, Photovoltaic systems terrestrial , Solar radiation on Mars.


Manuals for University Courses

  1. J. Appelbaum, J. Kamen. Exercises in Electrical Machines. Students Organization Publication, Tel-Aviv University, p. 70, 1973.

  2. J. Appelbaum. Direct Current Machines. Students Organization Publication, Tel-Aviv University, p. 70, 2005.

  3. J. Appelbaum. Induction Machines. Students Organization Publication, Tel-Aviv University, p. 70, 2005.

  4. J. Appelbaum. Synchronous Machines. Students Organization Publication, Tel-Aviv University, p. 39, 2005.

  5. J. Appelbaum. Electric Drives Students Organization Publication, Tel-Aviv University, p.102, 2014.




          M. Crutchik, J. Appelbaum, Solar Radiation on a Catenary Collector, Paper back- October 18, 2018, NASA   ISBN-10: 1728924219         ISBN-13: 978-1728924212


Chapter in Book

  1. Atmospheric Effects on the Utility of Solar Power on Mars, Part IV in Resources of Near-Earth Space, Editors: J.S. Lewis, M.S. Matthews, M.L. Guerrieri, The University of Arizona Press, 1993.

  2. Operation of a DC permanebt magnet motor powered by a soolar cell generator   Appelbaum, J., 1985, Unknown Host Publication Title. Luque, A., Figueiras Vidal, A. R. & Delgado, J. M. R. (eds.). IEEE, p. 137-140 4 p .

  3.  Parameterization of solar cells  United States & Lewis Research Center, 1992, [Washington, D.C.]: National Aeronautics and Space     Administration. 21 p. (NASA technical memorandum; vol. 105885)              



Articles in Journals

  1. J. Appelbaum, M.S. Erlicki, “A Problem of Economic Optimization of Electric Equipment Design”, IEEE Trans. on Communication and Electronics, Vol. 83, No. 75, pp. 773-776, 1964.
  2. M.S. Erlicki, J. Appelbaum, “Optimized Parameter Analysis of an Induction Machine”, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 84, No. 11, pp. 1017-1924, 1965.
  3. A. Emanuel-Eigeles, J. Appelbaum, “AC Voltage Regulation by Means of Chopper Circuits”, Electronic Letters, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 26-28, 1968.
  4. M.S. Erlicki, J. Appelbaum, “Slot-Shape Consideration in Electrical Machinery”, Proc. IEE, Vol. 115, No. 11, pp. 1705-1706, 1968.
  5. J. Appelbaum, M.S. Erlicki, “Optimized Design of Induction Machines”, IEEE Proc. PES Paper No. 68 CP 604-PWR, Chicago, U.S.A. June 1968 (Reviewed paper).
  6. A. Emanuel-Eigeles, J. Appelbaum, “Analyse Einer Regulungsschaltung fur Wechselstromspannungen Mittels Steller”, Archiv fur Elektrotechnik, Bd. 53, H. 5, pp. 326-337, 1970.
  7. M.S. Erlicki, J. Appelbaum, “Solution of Practical Optimization Problems”, IEEE Trans. on System Sciences and Cybernetics, Vol. SSC-6, No.1, pp. 49-52, 1970.
  8. J. Appelbaum, “Determination of Slot Dimensions of Squirrel-Cage and Deep-Bar Rotors”, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-91, No. 4, pp. 1513-1518, 1972.
  9. J. Appelbaum, “Economic Design of an Induction Machine”, Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift-A (ETZ-A), Bd. 95, H. 9, pp. 450-452, 1974.
  10. J. Appelbaum, “Performance Analysis of an Induction Machine”, IEEE PES paper No. C75001-3 New York, U.S.A., January 1975.
  11. J. Appelbaum, “Optimal Design of Electrical Machines”, J. Assoc. Engineers and Architects in Israel, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 5-11, 1975.
  12. A. Braunstein, J. Appelbaum, J. Bany, “The Solar Cell Array in Normal Operation and Under Fault Conditions”, J. Assoc. Engineers & Architects in Israel, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 27-40, 1976.
  13. J. Appelbaum, Y. Shamash, “Engineering Optimization Problems of Electromagnetic Devices”, J. Assoc. Engineers and Architects in Israel, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 7-14, 1976.
  14. J. Appelbaum, A, Braunstein, J. Bany, “Performance Analysis of a Solar-Electrical System with a Load and Storage Batteries”, Energy Conversion, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 105-110, 1977.
  15. T. Lissack, J. Appelbaum, “Stepped Voltage DC/AC Inverter - Part I: Analysis”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, Vol. IECI - 24, No. 2, pp. 192-199, 1977.
  16. J. Appelbaum, “Optimized Design of Three-Phase Power Transformer”, Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift-A (ETZ-A), Bd. 98, H. 6, pp. 438-440, 1977.
  17. J. Appelbaum, Y. Shamash, “A Method for the Optimization of a Production Line of Electromagnetic Devices”, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC-7, No. 6, pp. 443-453, 1977.
  18. T. Lissack, J. Appelbaum, “Stepped Voltage DC/AC Inverter – Part II: Optimal Construction of Waveforms by Means of Discrete Levels”, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, Vol. IECI - 24, No. 3, pp. 273-276, 1977.
  19. J. Bany, J. Appelbaum, A. Braunstein, “The Influence of Parameter Dispersion of Electrical Cells on the Array Power Output”, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-24, No. 8, pp. 1032-1040, 1977.
  20. A. Braunstein, J. Bany, J. Appelbaum, “Determination of Solar Cell Equation Parameters from Empirical Data”, Energy Conversion, Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 1-6, 1977.
  21. J. Appelbaum, R. Shamir, “Spectrum Analysis and Characteristics of a 2-Level P.W.M. Inverter”, International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 45,No. 3, pp. 225-240, 1978.
  22. S. Lichtenstein, J. Appelbaum, “Some Aspects of Optimization Techniques for Electromagnetic Devices”, Electric Machines and Electromechanics, Vol. 3, No.1, pp. 1-10, 1978.
  23. J. Appelbaum, “Operation of DC Motors Powered by Photovoltaic Converters”, Electric Machines and Electromechanics, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 209-220, 1979.
  24. J. Appelbaum, J. Bany, “Performance Analysis of DC Motor - Photovoltaic Converter System, Part I - Separately Excited Motor”, Solar Energy, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 439-445, 1979.
  25. J. Appelbaum, “Solar Cell Simulator”, IEEE PES A 79 464-9, Vancouver, Canada, 1979.
  26. J. Appelbaum, J. Bany, “Shadow Effect of Adjacent Solar Collectors in Large-Scale Systems”, Solar Energy, Vol. 23, pp. 497-507, 1979.
  27. A. Yablon, J. Appelbaum, “Transient Analysis of a DC Series Motor”, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation}, Vol. IECI-28, No. 2, pp. 120-125, 1981.
  28. J. Appelbaum, “Performance Analysis of DC Motor-Photovoltaic Converter System, Part II-Series and Shunt Excited Motors”, Solar Energy, Vol.27, pp. 421-431, 1981.
  29. R. Weiss, J. Appelbaum, “Battery State of Charge Determination in Photovoltaic Systems”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.129, 9, pp. 1928-1933, 1982.
  30. J. Appelbaum, M. Shechter, J. Bany, G. Yekutieli, “Array Representation of Non-Identical Electrical Cells”, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-29, No.8, pp. 1145-1151, 1982.
  31. M. Shechter, J. Appelbaum, G. Yekutieli, “Parameters of Solar Cell Arrays”, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-30, No.6, pp. 616-618, 1983.
  32. M. Shechter, J. Appelbaum, G. Yekutieli, “Quality Factors of Solar Cell Arrays”, Solar Cells, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 295-309, 1983.
  33. E. Fuchs, L.H. Chang, J. Appelbaum, Magnetizing Current, Iron Losses, and Forces of Three-Phase Induction Machines at Sinusoidal and Nonsinusoidal Terminal Voltages, Part I: Analysis”, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, No. 11, pp. 3303-3312, 1984.
  34. J. Appelbaum, D. Gabbay, “Stepped Sinewave Inverter”, IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. AES-20, No. 6, pp. 754-760, 1984.
  35. J. Appelbaum, D. Gabbay, “The Determination of the Number of Cells in a Stepped Sinewave Inverter for Equal Charge Transfer”, IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic System, Vol. AES-21, No. 4, pp. 484-489, 1985.
  36. D. Gabbay, J. Appelbaum, “The Design of a DC/AC Inverter with the MC68HC11 Microcomputer”, IEEE Micro, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 16-23, 1986.
  37. J. Appelbaum, “Starting and Steady State Characteristics of DC Motors Powered by Solar Cell Generators”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-1, No. 1, pp. 17-25, 1986.
  38. J. Appelbaum, “Performance Characteristics of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor Powered by Solar Cells”, Solar Cells, Vol. 17, No. 2-3, pp. 343-362, 1986.
  39. J. Bany, J. Appelbaum, “The Effect of Shading on the Design of a Field of Solar Collectors”, Solar Cells, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 201-228, 1987.
  40. J. Appelbaum, O. Bergshtein, “Solar Radiation Distribution Sensor”, Solar Energy, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 1-10, 1987.
  41. J. Appelbaum, E. Fuchs, J.C. White, “Optimization of Three-Phase Induction Motor Design, Part I: Formulation of the Optimization Technique”. IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, No. 3, pp. 407-414, 1987.
  42. J. Appelbaum, I.A. Khan, E. Fuchs, J.C. White, “Optimization of Three-Phase Induction Motor Design, Part II:  The Efficiency and Cost of an Optimal Design”. IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, No. 3, pp. 415-422, 1987.
  43. J. Appelbaum, “The Quality of Load Matching in a Direct-Coupling Photovotaic System”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, pp. 534-541, 1987.
  44. J. Appelbaum, “The Operation of Loads Powered by Separate Sources or by a Common Source of Solar Cells”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 351-357, 1989.
  45. J. Appelbaum, D.J. Flood, “The Mars Climate for a Photovoltaic System Operation”, Space Power, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 307-317, 1989.
  46. J. Appelbaum, M.S. Sarma, “The Operation of Permanent Magnet DC Motors Powered by a Common Source of Solar Cells”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 635-642, 1989.
  47. J. Appelbaum, D.J. Flood, “Solar Radiation on Mars”, Solar Energy, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 353-363, 1990.
  48. J. Appelbaum, “Resistive Loads Powered by Separate or by Common Electrical Sources”, Solar Cells, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 345-359, 1990.
  49. G.A. Landis, J. Appelbaum, “Photovoltaic Power Options for Mars”, Space Power, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 225-237, 1991.
  50. J. Appelbaum, S. Singer, M.S. Sarma, “Starting Characteristics of Permanent Magnet and Series Excited Motors Powered by Solar Cells: Variation with Solar Radiation and Temperature”, Electric Machines and Power Systems, Vol. 20, pp. 173-181, 1992.
  51. D. Lahav, J. Appelbaum, “Internal Impedance of Nickel—Cadmium Batteries with Application to Space”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 295-301, 1992.
  52. M. Crutchik, J. Appelbaum, “Solar Radiation on a Catenary Collector”, Space Power, Vol. 11, No. 3, 4, pp. 215-240, 1992.
  53. S. Singer, J. Appelbaum, “Starting Characteristics of Direct Current Motors Powered by Solar Cells”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 47-53, 1993.
  54. J. Appelbaum, G.A. Landis, I. Sherman, “Solar Radiation on Mars - Update 1991, Solar Energy, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 35-51, 1993.
  55. N. Yehezkel, J. Appelbaum, A. Yogev, M. Oron, “Losses in a Three Dimensional Compound Parabolic Concentrator (3-D C.P.C.) as a Second Stage of a Solar Concentrator”, Solar Energy, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 45-51, 1993.
  56. J. Appelbaum, A. Chait, D.A. Thompson, “Parameter Estimation and Screening of Solar Cells”, Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 93-106, 1993.
  57. J. Appelbaum, G.A. Landis, “Photovoltaic Arrays for Martian Surface Power”, Acta Astronautics, Vol. 30, pp. 127-142, 1993.
  58.  Appelbaum, A. Chait, D.A. Thompson, “A Method for Screening of Solar Cells”, Solid State Electronic, J       Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 246-248, 1995.
  59. J. Appelbaum, I. Sherman, G.A. Landis, “Solar Radiation on Mars: Stationary Photovoltaic Array”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 554-561, 1995.
  60. M. Crutchik, A.J. Colozza, J. Appelbaum, “A Photovoltaic Catenary-Tent Array for the Martian Surface”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 373-377, 1995.
  61. M. Alaluf, J. Appelbaum, L. Klibanov, D. Brinker, D. Scheiman, N. Croitoru, “Amorphous Diamond-like Carbon Films - A Hard Anti-Reflecting Coating for Silicon Solar Cells”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 256, pp. 1-3, 1995.
  62. J. Appelbaum, D.J. Flood, M. Crutchik, “Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 410-419, 1996.
  63. A. Yogev, J. Appelbaum, M. Oron, N. Yehezkel, “Concentrating and Splitting of Solar Radiation Spectrum for Laser Pumping and Photovoltaic Conversion”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 405-409, 1996.
  64. D.A. Scheiman, P.P. Jenkins, D.J. Brinker, J. Appelbaum, “Low-Intensity Low-Temperature (LILT) Measurements and Coefficients on New Photovoltaic Structures”, Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 4, pp. 117-127, 1996. 
  65. H. Suehrcke, J. Appelbaum, R. Reshef, “Modeling of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor/Centrifugal Pump Assembly in a Photovoltaic System”, Solar Energy, Vol. 59, No. 1-3, pp. 37-42, 1997.
  66. Landis, G.A., Appelbaum, J., Photovoltaic power system operation on  mars, 1997, In: Science and Technological Series, 90,p.281-288.
  67. M. Allon-Alaluf, J. Appelbaum, M. Maharize, A. Seidman and N. Croitoru, “The Influence of Diamond-like Carbon Films on the Properties of Silicon Solar Cells”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 303, pp. 273-276, 1997.
  68. E. Matz, J. Appelbaum, Y. Taitel, D.J. Flood, “Solar Cell Temperature on Mars”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 119-125, 1998.
  69. J. Appelbaum, N. Yehezkel, A, Yogev, “Measurement of Concentrator Solar Cell Efficiency at Very-High Concentration and Narrow-Band Spectrum”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 51, pp. 317-325, 1998.
  70. M. Allon-Alaluf, J. Appelbaum, N. Croitoru, “Properties of GaAs Solar Cells Coated with Diamond-like Carbon Films”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 320, pp. 159-162, 1998.
  71. J. Appelbaum, T. Segalov, “Screening Solar Cells for Improved Array Performance”, Progress in Photovoltaic, Vol. 7, pp. 113-128, 1999.
  72. J. Appelbaum, Y. Weiss, “The Packing of Circles on a Hemisphere”, Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 10, issue 11, pp 1015-1019,1999.
  73. J. Appelbaum, N. Croitoru, L. Klibanov, D. Scheiman, "The Effect of Electron Damage on Silicon Solar Cells Coated with Diamond-like Carbon Films", Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 8, pp. 571-578, 2000.
  74. J. Appelbaum, A. Steiner, G.A. Landis, C.R. Baraona, T. Segalov, “Spectral Content of Solar Radiation on Martian Surface Based on Mars Pathfinder”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), J. of Propulsion and Power, Vol.17, No.3, pp.508-516, 2001.
  75. J. Appelbaum, D. Mozes, A. Steiner, I. Segal, M. Bark, M. Reuss, P. Roth,  “Aeration of Fish-Ponds by Photovoltaic Power”,  Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 9, pp. 295-301, 2001.
  76. R Illanes,  A. De. Francisco, J.L.Torres, M.De Blas, J. Appelbaum, "Comparative study of Simulation of Photovoltaic Pumping System with Stationary and Polar Tyracking Arrays", Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 11, pp. 453-465, 2003.
  77. M. De Blas, J.Appelbaum, J.L.Torres, A.Garcia, E.Prieto, R.Illanes, "A Refrigeration Facility for Milk Cooling Powered by Photovoltaic Solar Energy", Progress in Photovoltaics, Vol. 11, pp.467-479,2003.
  78. D.Weinstock, J.Appelbaum, "Optimal Solar Field Design of Stationary Collectors", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol.126, pp.898-905, 2004.
  79. M. De Blas, J.Appelbaum, J.L. Torres, A. Garcia, Francisco, “Characterisation of an Electric Motor Directrly Coupled to a Photovoltaic Solar Array in a Refrigeration Facility for Milk Cooling”, Biosystems Engineering, Vol.95, Issue 3, pp.461-471, 2006.
  80. D.Weinstock, J.Appelbaum, "Optimization of Economic Solar Field Design of Stationary Thermal Collectors", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol.129, pp.363-370, 2007.
  81. K. Y. Khouzam, J. Appelbaum, “Salt Water Chlorination by Photovoltaic Power- Performance Matching and Optimum Sizing”, Australian Journal of Elecrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. 4, No 3 , pp. 277-284, 2008.
  82. D. Weinstock, J. Appelbaum, “Optimal Design of Photovoltaic Collectors in a Solar Field”,  חשמל ואנשים, גליון 21, נוב.-דצמ, 2008
  83. D. Weinstock, J. Appelbaum, “Optimization of  Solar Photovoltaic Fields”, Journal of Solar Energy  Engineering, Vol.131, pp. 031003-1-9, 2009.
  84. T. Maor, J. Appelbaum, “Solar Radiation on Horizontal Tubular Microalgae Photobioreactor:  Direct Beam Radiation”, Journal of Solar Energy  Engineering, Vol.133, pp. 024502-1-5., 2011.
  85. T. Maor, J. Appelbaum, “ Horizontal Tubular Microalgae Photovoltaic Plant View Factors and  Diffuse  Radiation”, Journal of Solar Energy  Engineering, Vol.133, pp. 024503-1-7., 2011.
  86.  T. Maor, J. Appelbaum, “View Factors of Photovoltaic Collector Systems”, Journal of Solar Energy,  Vol.86, pp.1701-1708, 2012.
  87.  A. Ben Or, J. Appelbaum, “Estimation of Multi-Junction Solar Cell Parameters”, Progress in   photovoltaic , DOI: 10.1002/pip.2158, Vol.21, pp.713-723, 2013.
  88.  A. Peled, J. Appelbaum, "Evaluation of solar radiation properties by statistical tools and wavelet  analysis",  Reneable Energy, Vol.59, pp.30-38, 2013.
  89.  A. Ben Or, J. Appelbaum, "Performance Analysis of Concentrator Photovoltaic Dense-Arrays Under  Non-Uniform Irradiance", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol.117, pp.110-119, 2013.
  90.  J.Appelbaum, A. Peled, " Parameter extraction of solar cells- A comparative examination of three  methods"  Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol.122, pp.164-173, 2014.
  91.  A. Ben Or, J. Appelbaum, "Dependence of multi-junction solar cell parameters on concentration and  temperature", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol.130 pp.234-240, 2014.
  92.  J. Appelbaum, "Bifacial photovoltaic panels field", Renewable Energy, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.050, Vol.85, pp. 338–343, 2016.
  93.  J. Appelbaum, I. Peleg, A. Peled, "Multi-sensor for measuring erythemally weighted irradiance in  various direction simultaneously”, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI 10.1007/s00704- 015- 1560-5, 126:339-350, 2016.
  94.  I. Mamia, J. Appelbaum, "Shadow analysis of wind turbines for dual use of land for combined wind and solar photovoltaic power generation", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,, Vol.55, pp. 713-718, 2016.
  95.  J.Appelbaum, "Current mismatch in PVpanels resulting from different locations of cells in the panel",   Solar Energy, Vol.126, pp.264-275, 2016.
  96.  J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, "View factors of photovoltaic collectors on roof tops", Journal of  Renewable and Sustainable Energy, doi:10.1063/1.4943122, Vol.8, Issue 2, 3 March 2016.
  97.  J. Appelbaum, Ben Zion Bobrovsky, I. Peleg, "Ultraviole-B solar radiation system for measuring, recording, displaying and warning of dengerous levels of radiation at recreation grounds", British  Journal of Applied Science & Technology, DOI:10.9734/BJAST/2016/2434,Vol.15:1-13, 2016.
  98.  A. Peled, J. Appelbaum, "Minimizing the current mismatch from different locations of solar cells  within a PV module by proposing new interconnections", Solar energy,Vol.135, pp.840-847, 2016.
  99.  J. Appelbaum, "View factors to ground of photovoltaic collectors" Journal of Solar Energy  Engineering, Vol.138, 064501-1---064501-6, 2016.
  100.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, "Design optimization of photovoltaic solar fields-insight and  methodology", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.76, pp.882-893, 2017.
  101. J. Appelbaum, "Optinal energy production of PV systems on inclined planes"  חשמל ואנשים, גליון 65, .מרץ 2017    
  102. A. Peled, J. Appelbaum, "Enhancing the power output of PV modules by considering the view factor  to sky effect and rearanging the interconnections of solar cells", Progress in  Photovoltaic , 25(9),2017, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2896.
  103. J. Appelbaum, "The role of view factors in solar photovoltaic fields", Renewable and Sustainable  Energy Reviews, Vol.81, pp.161-171, 2018.
  104. A. Peled, J. Appelbaum,"The view-factor effect shaping of I-V chatacteristics", Progress in   Photovoltaic , 26, 273-280, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2979, 2018.
  105. J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, " The effect of sky view factors on optimized photovoltaic fields",Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 10,013501 (2018), DOI: 10.1063/1.4994625.
  106. J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, "The effect of sky diffuse radiation on photovoltaic fields", Renewable an  Sustainable Energy, 10,033505 (2018), DOI: 10.1063/1.5027599 
  107.  J. Appelbaum, "Shading and masking affect the performance of photovoltaic systems- A review"   AIMS Energy, 2019, 7(1): 77-87. doi: 10.3934/energy.2019.1.77.
  108.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, " The effect of collector shading and masking on optimized PV field   designs" Energies 2019, 12(18), 3471;
  109.  J. Appelbaum, Y. Massalha, A. Aronescu, "Corrections to anisotropic diffuse radiation model", Solar  Energy, 195, 523-528, 2019,
  110.  J.Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, T. Maor, "Shading by overhang PV collectors", Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4280;  doi:10.3390/app9204280.     
  111.  Y. Massalha, J. Appelbaum, "Experimental verification of the sky view factor model in multiple-row  photovoltaic fields", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 142/021004-1-5, 2020, doi   10.1115/1.4044979.
  112.  J. Appelbaum, T. Maor, “Dependence of PV module temperature on incident time-dependent solar Spectrum”, Appl. Sci. 2020,10, 914
  113.  J. Appelbaum, M. Crutchik, A. Aronescu, “Curved photovoltaic collectors-convex surface”, Solar  Energy, Vol. 199, pp.832-836, 2020.
  114.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, “Shading on photovoltaic collectors on rooftops”, Appl. Sci. 2020,10,  2977; doi:10.3390/app10082977.
  115.  J. Appelbaum, “A static multiple detector solar radiation sensor”, AIMS Energy, Vol.8(5),802-818, 2020.   DOI:10.3934/energy.2020.5.802.
  116.  J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, “Distribution of solar radiation on greenhouse convex rooftop” Sustainability,  Vol.12, 7197, 2020.
  117.  J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, “Modification of circumsolar radiation for anisotropic diffuse radiation  models:Photovooltaic collector on sloped planes” Journal of radiation research and imaging,1(1):27-32, 2021.      
  118.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, “Solar Radiation on a Parabolic Concave Surface”, Energies 2021, 14, 2245.
  119.  S. Swaid, J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, “Shading and masking of PV collectors on horizontal and sloped planes facing south and north- A comparative study” Energies 2021, 14, 3850.  http//
  120.  J. Appelbaum, A. Aronescu, “Inter-row spacing calculation in photovooltaic fields-A new approach, Renewable Energy, 200, 387-394, 2022.
  121.  J. Appelbaum, A aronescu, “View factors of flat collectors,including photovoltaics, visible to parial  sky”Energies, 15, 8742, 2022,
  122.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, “The Effect of Collector Azimuth on Inter-Row Shading in Photovoltaic  Fields- A Comprehensive Point of View”, Energies 2023, 16, 4876.
  123.  A. Aronescu, J. Appelbaum, “Sky view factors of curved surfaces”, Journal of Renewable Energy,  2024, 224, 120171,


  1. J. Appelbaum, R. Weiss, ``Educational Simulator for Electrical Devices”, Patent No. 61977, 1984, Israel Patent.
  2. J. Appelbaum, R. Weiss, ``Solar Radiation Sensor and System Including Same for Measuring Solar Radiation Distribution”, Patent No. 4,491,727, 1985, United States Patent.


  1. M. Barkai - Preparation and Properties of Thin Films of BaTiO3 and SbSI, (June 1974).
  2. J. Bany - Solar Electrical Systems, (July 1977).
  3. R. Shamir - DC/AC P.W.M. Inverter, (April 1980).
  4. A Yablon - Simulation of Electrical Machines by Non-linear Electrical Elements, (April 1980).
  5. S. Lichtenstein - Optimization Methods in Electromagnetic Design, (Jan.1981).
  6. R. Weiss - Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic System by Simulation and Scaled-Down Realization, (April 1981).
  7. M. Schehter - Array Performance of Non-Identical Parameters of Electrical Cells, (July 1981).
  8. D. Gabbay - A Microprocessor Controller DC/AC Adaptive Converter with Discrete DC Sources, (June 1982).
  9. I.A. Khan, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. - Optimization Of Three-Phase Induction Motor Design with Respect to Cost and Efficiency, (April 1883).
  10. E. Duchovni - Estimator Performance for Solar Cell Arrays (June 1988).
  11. D. Lahav - Nickel Cadmium Cells Behavior at High Currents and Low Temperature for Space Applications (Feb. 1990).
  12. N. Yehezkel - Satellite's Electrical Power Balance in L.E.O. (March 1991).
  13. M. Crutchik - Field of Solar Collectors: Effect of Shadowing on the Optimal Field Design (January 1992).
  14. N. Yehezkel - Concentrating and Splitting of the Solar Radiation Spectrum for Laser Pumping and Photovoltaic Conversion in Space Application (September 1993).
  15. E. Matz - Operating Temperature of Solar Cells on Mars (July 1995).
  16. B. Reshef - Analysis of a Solar-Photovoltaic Pumping System (October 1995).
  17. M. Schotlender - Solar Cells: Temperature and Solar Radiation Dependencies (April 1997).
  18. A. Nabwani - Solar Cells: Shadowing and Hot Point Effects (May 1997).
  19. D. Mozes, Photovoltaic Fish-Pond Aeration (1997).
  20. D. Eizips - Interface software for I-V Characteristics of Solar Cell Array Device (February 1998).
  21. I. Glasner - Analysis of MPPT in Buck and Boost Converters for Photovoltaic Systems (June 1998).
  22. Y. Hirsch - Modeling of a Photovoltaic Water Pumping System (June 1999).
  23. N. Tasher - A System for Characterization of Solar Cells (Feb. 2000).
  24. G. Prister – Analysis of Methods and Design Considerations of Photovoltaic Systems (2001).
  25.  D.Shomron – Numerical Analyses of Irradiation in a sherical collector (2004).
  26. Y. Banai – Solar Radiation Distribution Sensor (2004).
  27. I. Peleg --  Development of a System for Measuring ,Displaying and Warning of Dangerous Levels of UVB Radiation at Recreation Grounds (2004).
  28. D. Ait--  Design of a Photovoltaic System Based on Loss of Load  Probability (2004).
  29. G. Kdess—Reflector and Tracking Design for a Hemispherical Solar Collector (2005).
  30. Y. Dagan---The Effect of Environment on the Operation of Solar Cells (2006).
  31. E. Ya`akov---Solar Position Algorithm Implementation in Labview Program for Solar Tracking System (2006).
  32. D. Weinstock---- Optimal Design of  Solar Fields (2008).
  33. M. Hershcu----- Photovoltaic Emulator Employing a Novel Approach and an Improved Implementation of MPPT (2009).
  34. T. Maor --- Photovoltaic Systems under Variable Radiation (2011).
  35. A. Ben-Or – Current-Voltage Characteristics and Models of Multi- Junction solar cells (2011).
  36. R. Katav- Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Lighting System Design (2012).
  37. Y. Mamia-The effect of shadow frequency on the output power of solar cells (2013).
  38. A. Peled- Modeling Aspects in Photovoltaic Devices and their Environmental Factors (2015).
  39. A. Aronescu- Design of Optimal-Practical Photovoltaic Array (2015)
  40. M. Bchori- Parameter estimation of solar cells by pattern search method (2015)
  41. Y. Massalha- The location of PV modules on the collector affects the modules output power (2019).43.
  42. S.  Swaid- Field experiments on an operating PV system for proving the "Sky view factor", calculation of  operating temperature, shadows and performance ratio (PR) of the system (2021).
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